Skip to main content

RETRACTED ARTICLE: Translation analysis of English address image recognition based on image recognition

This article was retracted on 15 September 2022

This article has been updated


In the current English semantic recognition of mail, there are problems such as serious information distortion and unrecognizable, which affects the promotion of machine automation to recognize text in emails. This study combines the actual situation of the mail image to set the corresponding image processing algorithm, adopts the conversion from RGB data to gray data to perform image gray processing, and combines the weighted average gray algorithm to improve the image gray definition and softness. At the same time, this study uses homomorphic filtering to enhance the image, uses homomorphic filtering to enhance the sharpness of the text, and uses median filtering to enhance the image. Image edge recognition is performed with the Sobel color difference operator, and the text result is output. Combining experiments to study the performance of the algorithm, the research shows that the algorithm has certain practical effects, which can provide reference for subsequent related research.

1 Introduction

At present, English has become the most popular language in the world. Most of the files in the world are stored in English. In the era of intelligent information, file recognition is mostly carried out through intelligent recognition, which shows that the semantic recognition of English images is very important. English mail is mostly completed by handwriting. How to realize automatic translation of English address has become an important topic of postal automation. Mature character recognition technology is the key to processing mail information. Therefore, this study analyzes English address image recognition based on image processing technology.

The text detection technology of complex background, as a kind of target detection, reached a research peak in the last 5 years. Unlike general target detection tasks, text detection in natural scenes is more challenging. So far, this technology has not been completely solved by people, and the application of text detection algorithms to practical systems still needs to be continued [1]. Text detection of complex backgrounds is quite different from traditional text detection. It is these differences that add to the difficulties and challenges of this research. First of all, traditional text detection is mainly for standard documents or text with specific positions, and people can make full use of the position and shape characteristics of the text to extract them. However, text in natural scenes is more versatile, and text can appear anywhere in the image. In the early days of development, the complexity of machine translation was underestimated, and machine translation was only limited to the conversion between word layers. Many machine translation research scholars compare the process of machine translation with the process of interpreting passwords. They try to realize the machine translation of word-to-word by querying the dictionary. Therefore, the readability of the translation is poor and it is difficult to put it into practice [2]. In 1966, the black paper “Language and Machine” published by the National Academy of Sciences reported a negative attitude towards machine translation. They believe that machine translation research has encountered insurmountable “semantic barriers,” and it is impossible to develop a truly practical machine translation system in the short term. This report has caused many countries in the world to stop supporting machine translation research, and many established machine translation research units have encountered administrative and financial difficulties. Therefore, the study of machine translation in the 1960s once entered a low tide [3]. Until the early 1970s, machine translation was re-developed based on real-world needs and advances in technology. Researchers in machine translation are generally aware that the differences between the original language and the translated language are not only expressed in the difference of vocabulary, but also in the difference in syntactic structure. Therefore, in order to obtain a readable translation, more efforts must be made in automatic syntactic analysis [4]. The USA, Japan, Canada, France, and the Soviet Union have successively established a series of machine translation systems. In 1976, the University of Montreal in Canada and the Canadian Federal Government Translation Agency jointly developed the practical machine translation system TAUM-METEO to provide weather forecasting services. The system can translate 60,000–300,000 words per hour and can translate 2000 weather forecasts per day. The METEO system is a milestone in the history of machine translation development, and a series of practical and commercialized machine translation systems have emerged [5]. The ATLAS-I system developed by Fujitsu of Japan is an English-Japanese machine translation system built on a large computer. The system is centered on syntactic analysis and can be used to translate scientific and technical articles [6]. The French Textile Research Institute’s TITUS-IV system can be translated into English, German, French, and Spanish. The system is mainly used to translate textile technology literature [7]. The system provided by the USA to the US Air Force can be used for Russian-English machine translation and the translation system provided by the USA to the American Ratsek Company can be translated into Russian-English, English-Russian, German-English, Chinese-French, and Chinese-English [8].

At the current level of image processing, some scholars are already trying to translate signboards and texts taken by photographs or videos. The Carnegie Mellon University’s Sign Translation Interplay System Lab is mainly engaged in the research of text and various automatic extraction techniques, applies their research results to the TIDES project, and has developed a Chinese-English translation software based on the PDA platform [9]. Kapsouras et al. also studied image translation in English and Spanish and implemented it on a PC using MATLAB [10]. In his mobile phone camera-based real-time translation software, Herekar et al. used augmented reality technology to restore the background and superimpose the translation results [11]. The main problem with the current research is that there are most of the target areas that need to manually select the text to be translated. In addition, many studies are aimed at images such as street signs and photographs taken by handheld devices. The translation attempts of inline images in web pages are still in the research stage and have not been popularized in the commercial world. However, as far as the progress has been made, text image analysis will eventually go from the laboratory to the market and be applied to all aspects of people’s life and work [12].

According to the above analysis, some advanced technologies in the semantic recognition of image texts have been applied, but there are still some problems in the semantic recognition of emails. Based on this, this study takes English mail as an example to carry out English image recognition translation research and proposes corresponding research methods to promote the application of image recognition technology in mail semantic recognition.

2 Research methods

2.1 Grayscale processing

For address image recognition, it is first necessary to extract the image frame by video or photographing as an image detection technique. The grayscale process discussed in this study refers to the conversion of images from RGB data to grayscale data. The RGB data format has advantages that other data formats do not have. The data format has clear and clear physical representation and is based on the principle of three primary colors. Therefore, most of the color images are acquired, accessed, and displayed using the RGB data format. However, the RGB data format itself does not distinguish the blackness and brightness information of the image, so in some specific applications such as image analysis and some specific color-based recognition, the RGB format will bring a lot of complexity. This paper uses the weighted average gray scale algorithm [13].

Weighted average method: according to specific needs, different weight components are given different weights according to importance, and the weight value is obtained as the gray value of the point, which can be expressed as:

$$ R=G=B={K}_rR+{K}_gG+{K}_bB $$

Among them, Kr, Kg, and Kb are the weighting values corresponding to the R, G, and B components, respectively. According to different needs, different weight values are assigned to the respective color components, and the obtained grayscale image will have a considerable difference. In terms of human vision, the human eye is most sensitive to the green component, red is slightly second, and blue sensitivity is the lowest, so generally, Kr > Kr > Kb. The experimental theory shows that when Kr = 0.3, Kg = 0.59 and Kb = 0.11, the obtained grayscale image is relatively reasonable. The image obtained by the algorithm is more in line with human vision, and the brightness is relatively moderate, which is convenient for human eye recognition and machine processing. As shown in Fig. 1, the grayscale processing effects of the maximum value method, the average value method, and the weighted average method are respectively compared. As shown in Fig. 1a, b, and d show the effect of grayscale processing by the maximum value method, the average value method, and the weighted average method, respectively.

Fig. 1
figure 1

Comparison of grayscale processing effects

It can be seen that among the three gray-scale algorithms, the image obtained by the maximum value algorithm has the lowest brightness, the image of the average value algorithm has low brightness, and the image resolution is poor. However, compared with the maximum method, the weighted average method has no significant difference in image resolution, but the image brightness is relatively moderate.

2.2 Image enhancement

The image enhancement of the image is mainly to make the image part of interest of the image clearer by image processing, thereby facilitating subsequent image processing. For specific problems, different image components need to be enhanced, and the ultimate goal is to make the image more suitable for human visual characteristics or machine reading characteristics. Image enhancement cannot increase the amount of information, but simply amplifies a certain type of information of interest. At the cost, many irrelevant and weakly related information is ignored. Image enhancement techniques mainly include arithmetic, logic processing enhancement, space, frequency domain filtering enhancement, histogram conversion processing, and mixed space enhancement. When performing image enhancement, not only an enhancement technique can be applied, but also multiple enhancement techniques can be selected for a better processing effect. There are two main methods of image enhancement: image enhancement in the spatial domain and image enhancement processing in the frequency domain. The spatial domain enhancement technique mainly deals with image bitmap pixels as the processing target, while the frequency domain method achieves the goal by performing Fourier transform on the image pixel stream [14].

Since the text content on the image text is very much, the information in the detail part is also very important. Therefore, this paper adopts the homomorphic filtering method for image enhancement. At the same time, through homomorphic filtering, it is also possible to highlight the detailed information of the dark portion of the image due to uneven illumination, which is beneficial to the next image processing. The processing steps of homomorphic filtering are as follows: (1) the input image S (x, y) is subjected to digital processing to obtain L (x, y). (2) L (x, y) is carried out a fast Fourier transform. (3) The obtained image is subjected to frequency domain filtering. (4) The image is subjected to inverse fast Fourier transform. (5) The image obtained in the previous step is subjected to exponential operation to obtain the final homomorphic filtered output image [15].

The processing time of homomorphic filtering is relatively longer than other enhancement algorithms, but there is no obvious increase. Therefore, in view of the good guarantee of image outline information, this paper chooses to sacrifice a certain processing time to achieve better enhancement. At the same time, this paper chooses to make reasonable improvements in the subsequent algorithms to reduce the processing time of the whole algorithm, so as to achieve the real-time requirements of the whole system design [16].

2.3 Image denoising processing

The noise in digital images mainly comes from the analog transmission process of image information and the process of digital channel propagation and image acquisition. The channel is affected by incomplete controllable factors such as temperature and humidity in the actual environment and will exhibit unavoidable volatility. This volatility will be introduced into the transmitted signal and injected into the image data as noise information. It will affect the subsequent image processing, so it must be reduced by certain measures.

In this paper, the method of median filtering is adopted, which is easy to implement, the image processing effect is quite good, and the algorithm is faster, so the recognition time can be saved to some extent. Unlike mean filtering, median filtering is a nonlinear filtering technique that is based on sequencing theory and can effectively suppress noise signals. The main implementation of median filtering is as follows: first, for any pixel, the neighboring points are sorted and searched according to the gray value, and then the intermediate result of the sorting result is selected as the gray value of the point. Performing this operation on all pixels will result in a median filtered image. In general, the gray levels of adjacent dots in the image are continuous, and there is little possibility of a sudden change. For those points where the grayscale value of the pixel is significantly different from its neighborhood point, we change its pixel gray value to the median of its neighborhood point. The steps of implementing the image noise reduction algorithm in this study are as follows: (1) the neighborhood of the pixel is selected, which is generally a square neighborhood. In this paper, a 5 × 5 neighborhood is used. (2) The gray values of the neighborhood pixels are sorted. (3) The middle value of the ordered gray value sequence is selected as the 5 × 5 neighborhood selected by the gray value of the point, which is called a window. The window moves up, down, left, and right on the image until all image portions are covered, at which point the image filtering is complete. The median filtering is faster than the mean filtering, and the filtering effect on complex noise signals is much better. The wavelet transform has the best filtering effect, but the filtering takes the longest time. Because the identification system designed in this paper requires the system to meet the requirements of real-time and needs to meet the requirements of speed, we choose the median filter that can meet the performance and speed requirements.

2.4 Address image location analysis

The letter image usually consists of the address of the addressee, the area of the stamp, the address of the sender, the postmark, etc. The letter is transmitted through a black belt, and the black area around the letter is the black belt area. The letter layout is relatively fixed, which is helpful for locating the address of the addressee. The image of the letter can be referred to Fig. 2, and the acquired images are all gray images. In order to ensure the accuracy of image acquisition, the size of the acquired image is usually 2560 × 2048. The angle of the envelope image collected by the system is usually within 5°, which does not affect the subsequent analysis, so there is no need to consider the problem of tilt correction.

Fig. 2
figure 2

Address area location of the sender and receiver

The steps to locate the address of the recipient are as follows:

  1. 1.

    Remove the black belt area around: The image is scanned horizontally from left to right, and the black pixels of each line are counted. When the sum of the black pixel points divided by the sum of all the pixel points of the line is less than a certain threshold, which is obtained through experimental analysis, then the line is the upper boundary of the envelope. Similarly, the lower, left and right borders of the envelope are obtained.

  2. 2.

    Looking for text features: The entire envelope area is divided into M × N number sub-areas, and a gradient feature extraction algorithm is used for each sub-area to locate sub-areas that may contain text. The gradient feature extraction algorithm is as follows: P number of pixels are set on the scanning line of the jth sub-region, and the gray values, in turn, are \( {f}_0^j,{f}_1^j,\dots, {f}_{p-1}^j \). The gradient \( {\mathrm{D}}_i^j \) of the ith pixel on the scan line of the jth is defined as:

$$ {D}_i^j={f}_{i+2}^j+{f}_{i+1}^j-{f}_i^j-{f}_{i-1}^j $$

In order to better observe the frequency of change of the gradient \( {D}_i^j \), it is noted that \( {V}_i^j \) is the gradient quantization value of the ith pixel in the scanning line j, and t is a set threshold.

$$ {V}_i^j=\left\{\begin{array}{c}0,\mathrm{if}\kern0.5em {D}_i^j>1\\ {}255,\mathrm{else}\end{array}\right. $$

In this paper, for each sub-area, gradient analysis is performed with four scan lines, and the scan line directions are as follows: 0o, 45 o, 90 o, 135 o, respectively, which are denoted as Li, i [1, 4]. When the frequency of change of the Li gradient quantized value is greater than three times, the scan line may pass through the text area. If there are more than one such scan line in the four sweep lines of the sub-area, the sub-area may be considered to contain text. Then, the address area is located, and the address area is located by using the connected element labeling algorithm. For all sub-regions that match the gradient feature are marked as pixel foreground, the other sub-regions are uniformly labeled as pixel background.

The connected meta tag algorithm can be expressed as follows: (1) the current pixel is judged whether it is a background. If the pixel is the background, the algorithm jumps to (5), if not, the algorithm jumps to (2). (2) The current pixel is placed in the stack S. The new connected element c is initialized with the four vertices of the corresponding rectangle so that it is represented as the size of the current pixel. (3) If the stack is not empty, then a pixel in the stack is taken out, all its neighbor pixels are found, the neighbors are pushed onto the stack one by one, and the neighbor pixels are checked one by one whether they are outside the current rectangle. If the stack is empty, the four vertices of the rectangle are modified so that the pixels being looked up are included in the rectangle. (4) A pixel is taken out to check if all pixels have been processed. If all has been processed, one pixel is removed and the algorithm jumps to (5); otherwise, it jumps to (1). (5) According to the recorded rectangular vertices, one connected element is marked in the original picture.

  1. 3.

    Display address location results: according to the relatively stable character of the letter text layout, the address area of the addressee is generally in the middle area or the lower left area of the layout, and the height, width, and aspect ratio of the address area of the addressee are maintained within a certain range. As shown in Fig. 2, the yellow rounded rectangular area is the address area of the addressee, and the blue rectangular area is the other text area.

2.5 Text edge recognition

In the digital image edge detection technology, noise has a great influence on the edge detection effect, so the image is filtered and denoised before the edge detection. Traditional edge detection methods use Gaussian filtering, median filtering, mean filtering, and Wiener filtering to denoise. However, these filtering methods obscure information such as edge details of the image. Therefore, it is necessary to find a filtering method that balances the noise removal and the remaining edges.

The reason why the algorithm uses the vector total variation minimization model to filter out the noise in the color image is that the filtering method is faster and can preserve the edge of the image while filtering out noise. Meanwhile, the filtering performance is superior to other color image filtering methods, such as vector median filtering and basic vector direction filtering. These filtering methods have a long denoising time and blur the edges of the image The Canny edge detection method is to calculate the gradient magnitude and method of the image. The gradient of the image calculated in the color RGB space is more complicated. The gradient amplitude does not necessarily reflect the human eye’s perception of the local color difference. However, the color difference of the CIELAB space can reflect the human eye’s perception of color differences. Because the CIELAB color space is a uniform space perceived by the human eye, and it contains all the colors seen by the human eye, we use the direction of chromatic aberration and chromatic aberration instead of the magnitude and direction of the gradient. The paper proposes a Sobel color difference operator, which can quickly calculate the chromatic aberration and chromatic aberration direction of local regions. In this paper, we use the Sobel color difference operator to calculate the Sobel color difference amplitude and color difference direction.

$$ {D}_x= CD\left({x}_{i-1,j-1},{x}_{i-1,j-1}\right)+2 CD\left({x}_{i,j+1},{x}_{i,j-1}\right)+ CD\left({x}_{i+1,j+1},{x}_{i+1,j-1}\right) $$
$$ {D}_y= CD\left({x}_{i+1,j-1},{x}_{i-1,j-1}\right)+2 CD\left({x}_{i+1,j+1},{x}_{i-1,j}\right)+ CD\left({x}_{i+1,j+1},{x}_{i-1,j+1}\right)a $$
$$ CD\left({x}_{mn},{x}_{pq}\right)=\sqrt{\left({L}_{mn}-{L}_{pq}^2\right)+\left({a}_{mn}-{a}_{pq}^2\right)+\left({b}_{mn}-{b}_{pq}^2\right)} $$

The LAB values of the two pixels in the above equation are (Lmn, amn, bmn) and (Lpq, apq, bpq), respectively. The magnitude and direction of the chromatic aberration at (i, j) can be expressed as:

$$ CSD=\sqrt{D_x^2+{D}_y^2} $$
$$ \varphi =\arctan \left({D}_y/{D}_x\right) $$

Then, we perform non-maximum suppression on the Sobel color difference amplitude, traverse each pixel on the Sobel color difference amplitude image, and interpolate to calculate the Sobel color difference amplitude of two adjacent pixels in the current pixel gradient direction. If the current pixel’s Sobel color difference magnitude is greater than or equal to this value, the current pixel is a possible edge point; otherwise, the pixel point is a non-edge pixel point, and the image edge is refined to a pixel width. The edge of the image is then extracted with a double threshold, and the non-maximum suppressed image is thresholded with a high threshold and a low threshold, respectively. At the same time, by combining the recursive methods, we use the weak edge E2 pixels to connect the discontinuities in the strong edge E1. The results obtained on the basis of edge processing are shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 3
figure 3

Effect image of edge recognition

3 Results

In order to study the effectiveness of the method, the performance of the algorithm is studied by constructing a system platform. The system software is developed on the Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 platform, and SOLServer2000 is used as the application of background database. The image is acquired by a line array camera with a line frequency of 19K, and the size is usually 2560 × 2048. Experimental machine configuration: the processor is Intel Core 2 Duo, the memory is l G, and the operating system is Windows XP. The original image is shown in Fig. 4.

Fig. 4
figure 4

Original image of the test object

In the experiment, the neural network image recognition algorithm was used as a comparison to carry out analysis. In the actual analysis, we use Fig. 4 as the test object for comparative analysis. First, the image is grayscaled, and the result is shown in Fig. 5. Among them, Fig. 5a is the processing result of the gradation of the neural network, and Fig. 5b is the processing result of the gradation of the algorithm of the present study.

Fig. 5
figure 5

Comparison of processing results of image grayscale

On the basis of grayscale processing, we take enhanced processing on the image, and the result is shown in Fig. 6. Among them, Fig. 6a is an image enhancement effect image of the neural network, and Fig. 6b is an enhancement effect image of the algorithm of the present study.

Fig. 6
figure 6

Comparison of the effects of image enhancement processing

After that, we perform edge processing on the image to make the recognition object stand out further. The result is shown in Fig. 7. Among them, Fig. 7a is the edge recognition effect of the neural network image, and Fig. 7b is the edge recognition effect of the algorithm of the present study.

Fig. 7
figure 7

Comparison of effects of image edge recognition

Based on the above analysis results, the English address of the image is output through the system, and the obtained results are compared and analyzed. The output of the recording system is shown in Table 1.

Table 1 Comparison of English address recognition results

4 Discussion and analysis

The English address translation system proposed in this paper collects the envelope image of the Chinese address in English, locates the address area of the addressee, and identifies the content of the address of the addressee. Simultaneously, this paper analyzes the content of the address and extracts the address information and uses the string matching technology to translate the English address into a Chinese system. In addition, this study effectively integrates character recognition technology and machine translation technology into the system. Finally, the research algorithm and neural network image processing method are compared and analyzed.

As shown in Fig. 5a is a result of gray network processing of the neural network, the grayscale processed image is relatively blurred, and the grayscale color is relatively hard, which is difficult to meet the subsequent recognition requirements. Figure 5b is the result of the grayscale processing of the algorithm in this study. It can be seen from the comparison of the sharpness that the grayscale processing of the research algorithm does not make the image too distorted, and the grayscale processing color is softer, which is beneficial to the subsequent image processing.

Shown in Fig. 6a is a neural network enhancement effect, and the image has a certain improvement in the definition based on the gray processing, but is still relatively fuzzy, and the character recognition is difficult. Figure 6b shows the enhanced picture of the algorithm in this study. From the visual point of view, the text is clearer and the background of the picture has no effect on the recognition result.

As shown in Fig. 7, for the edge recognition result, from the result of the neural network processing of Fig. 7a, the text portion is basically recognized, but the character definition has a problem, and the character recognition is difficult. Figure 7b is the processing result of the algorithm of this study, the picture text is relatively clear and the background of the picture has been completely eliminated and does not affect the recognition of the picture text content.

The results of neural network processing and the processing results of the research algorithm are shown in Table 1. It can be seen from Table 1 that the algorithm of this study achieves 100% reduction in the English address recognition effect, and the address can be fully recognized only by the machine, so the algorithm of the present research can be used for automatic recognition of the machine system. However, the distortion of the neural network processing results is more serious, the machine cannot effectively identify the English address, but also needs to be corrected by humans, so it is difficult to apply it to the automatic recognition of the machine.

According to the above comparative analysis, the proposed algorithm has certain advantages in image processing and recognition results compared with the traditional neural network recognition algorithm. The algorithm of this study can achieve 100% reduction of English address, meet the requirements of machine automation identification, and has certain practical effects, so it is worth promoting afterwards, and it is helpful for the development of automatic mail address recognition technology.

5 Conclusion

This study takes English mail as an example to carry out translation research of English image recognition and proposes corresponding research methods to promote the application of image recognition technology in mail semantic recognition. For address image recognition, it is first necessary to extract the image frame by video or photographing, thereby detecting it as an image. The grayscale process discussed in this study refers to the conversion of images from RGB data to grayscale data, and the weighted average grayscale algorithm is used for grayscale processing. Meanwhile, there is a lot of text content on the image on the image text, and the information in the detail part is also very important. Therefore, this paper uses homomorphic filtering to enhance the image. Through homomorphic filtering, it is also possible to highlight the details of the darker part of the image due to uneven illumination, which is beneficial to the next image processing. In this paper, the method of median filtering is adopted, which is easy to implement, the image processing effect is quite good, and the algorithm is faster, which can save recognition time to some extent. In addition, the Sobel color difference operator is used to calculate the Sobel color difference amplitude and color difference direction, and then the image is edge-recognized, the text result is recognized, and the English address result is finally output. Finally, the performance of the proposed algorithm and the neural network algorithm are compared with the experimental analysis. The results show that the research has certain advantages in image processing and recognition results and can achieve 100% reduction of English addresses, which meets the requirements of machine automation identification.

Change history


  1. R. Canovas, J. Tomás, J. Lloret, et al., Statistical speech translation system based on voice recognition optimization using multimodal sources of knowledge and characteristics vectors. Comput. Stand. Interfaces 35(5), 490–506 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. I. Lénárt, Associations and verbal consciousness: an analysis based on four English and one Hungarian translation of Bulgakov’s novel: the Master and Margarita. Neohelicon 44(2), 487–504 (2017)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. O. Koller, J. Forster, H. Ney, Continuous sign language recognition: towards large vocabulary statistical recognition systems handling multiple signers. Comput. Vis. Image Underst. 141, 108–125 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. J.L. Fernández-Martínez, A. Cernea, Numerical analysis and comparison of spectral decomposition methods in biometric applications. Int. J. Pattern Recognit. Artif. Intell. 28(01), 1456001 (2014)

    Article  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  5. Du Y, Liu G, Feng G, et al. Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images based on wave atoms[J]. J. Biomed. Opt. 19(5):056009 (2014)

  6. T. Zhang, A. Chowdhury, N. Dhulekar, et al., From image to translation: processing the Endangered Nyushu Script. ACM Trans. Asian Low-Resource Lang. Inform. Proc. 15(4), 1–16 (2016)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. G.M. Bidelman, S. Moreno, C. Alain, Tracing the emergence of categorical speech perception in the human auditory system. Neuroimage 79(6), 201–212 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. C. Clemente, A. Balleri, K. Woodbridge, et al., Developments in target micro-Doppler signatures analysis : radar imaging, ultrasound and through-the-wall radar. Eurasip J. Adv. Sign. Proc. 2013(1), 47 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. K. Alaerts, D.G. Woolley, J. Steyaert, et al., Underconnectivity of the superior temporal sulcus predicts emotion recognition deficits in autism. Soc. Cogn. Affect. Neurosci 9(10), 1589 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. I. Kapsouras, N. Nikolaidis, Action recognition on motion capture data using a dynemes and forward differences representation. J. Vis. Commun. Image Represent. 25(6), 1432–1445 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. A.D. Herekar, A.A. Herekar, A. Ahmad, et al., The burden of headache disorders in Pakistan: methodology of a population-based nationwide study, and questionnaire validation. J. Headache Pain 14(1), 73–73 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. C. Capek, D. Waters, B. Woll, et al., Hand and mouth: cortical correlates of lexical processing in British sign language and speechreading English. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 20(7), 1220–1234 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. J. Chen, H. Cao, P. Natarajan, Integrating natural language processing with image document analysis: what we learned from two real-world applications. Int. J. Doc. Anal. Recognit 18(3), 235–247 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. C. Schaeffner, Evaluation in translation: critical points of translator decision-making. Transl. Stud. 6(3), 355–358 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. L.N. Vieira, Indices of cognitive effort in machine translation post-editing. Mach. Transl. 28(3–4), 187–216 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. J. Adhikari, M.C. Fitzgerald, SILAC-pulse proteolysis: a mass spectrometry-based method for discovery and cross-validation in proteome-wide studies of ligand binding. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 25(12), 2073–2083 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


The authors thank the editor and anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments and valuable suggestions.


This research is supported by the project of hubei provincial teaching reform research (No. 2017501).

Availability of data and materials

Please contact author for data requests.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations



The author read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Shengfang Wen.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The author declares that he has no competing interests.

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Wen, S. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Translation analysis of English address image recognition based on image recognition. J Image Video Proc. 2019, 11 (2019).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: