Skip to main content

Multispace Behavioral Model for Face-Based Affective Social Agents

Abstract

This paper describes a behavioral model for affective social agents based on three independent but interacting parameter spaces: knowledge, personality, and mood. These spaces control a lower-level geometry space that provides parameters at the facial feature level. Personality and mood use findings in behavioral psychology to relate the perception of personality types and emotional states to the facial actions and expressions through two-dimensional models for personality and emotion. Knowledge encapsulates the tasks to be performed and the decision-making process using a specially designed XML-based language. While the geometry space provides an MPEG-4 compatible set of parameters for low-level control, the behavioral extensions available through the triple spaces provide flexible means of designing complicated personality types, facial expression, and dynamic interactive scenarios.

[12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940]

References

  1. 1.

    Jones C: Chuck Amuck : The Life and Times of Animated Cartoonist. Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, New York, NY, USA; 1989.

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Badler N, Reich BD, Webber BL: Towards personalities for animated agents with reactive and planning behaviors. In Creating Personalities for Synthetic Actors: Towards Autonomous Personality Agents. Edited by: Trappl R, Petta P. Springer, New York, NY, USA; 1997:43-57.

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Bates J: The role of emotion in believable agents. Communications of the ACM 1994,37(7):122-125. 10.1145/176789.176803

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Loyall AB, Bates JB: Personality-rich believable agents that use language. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Autonomous Agents, February 1997, Marina del Rey, Calif, USA 106-113.

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Egges A, Kshirsagar S, Magnenat-Thalmann N: A model for personality and emotion simulation. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Knowledge-Based Intelligent Information & Engineering Systems (KES '03), September 2003, Oxford, UK 453-461.

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Ekman P, Friesen WV: Facial Action Coding System. Consulting Psychologists Press, San Francisco, Calif, USA; 1978.

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Kshirsagar S, Magnenat-Thalmann N: A multilayer personality model. Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Smart Graphics, June 2002, Hawthorne, NY, USA 107-115.

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Pelachaud C, Bilvi M: Computational model of believable conversational agents. In Communication in Multiagent Systems: Background, Current Trends and Future. Edited by: Huget M-P. Springer, New York, NY, USA; 2003:300-317.

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Rousseau D, Hayes-Roth B: Interacting with personality-rich characters. In Report KSL 97-06. Knowledge Systems Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif, USA; 1997.

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Arya A, DiPaola S, Jefferies L, Enns JT: Socially communicative characters for interactive applications. Proceedings of the 14th International Conference in Central Europe on Computer Graphics, Visualization and Computer Vision (WSCG '06), January-February 2006, Plzen-Bory, Czech Republic

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Wiggins JS, Trapnell P, Phillips N: Psychometric and geometric characteristics of the revised interpersonal adjective scales (IAS-R). Multivariate Behavioral Research 1988,23(3):517-530.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Battista S, Casalino F, Lande C: MPEG-4: a multimedia standard for the third millennium—part 1. IEEE Multimedia 1999,6(4):74-83. 10.1109/93.809236

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Bulterman DCA: SMIL 2.0—part 1: overview, concepts, and structure. IEEE Multimedia 2001,8(4):82-88. 10.1109/93.959106

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Arafa Y, Kamyab K, Mamdani E, et al.: Two approaches to scripting character animation. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Autonomous Agents & Multi-Agent Systems, Workshop on Embodied Conversational Agents, July 2002, Bologna, Italy

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    De Carolis B, Pelachaud C, Poggi I, Steedman M: APML, a markup language for believable behaviour generation. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Autonomous Agents & Multi-Agent Systems, Workshop on Embodied Conversational Agents, July 2002, Bologna, Italy

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Marriott A, Stallo J: VHML: uncertainties and problems. A discussion. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Autonomous Agents & Multi-Agent Systems, Workshop on Embodied Conversational Agents, July 2002, Bologna, Italy

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Prendinger H, Descamps S, Ishizuka M: Scripting affective communication with life-like characters in web-based interaction systems. Applied Artificial Intelligence 2002,16(7-8):519-553. 10.1080/08839510290030381

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Goldberg LR: An alternative "description of personality": the big-five factor structure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1990,59(6):1216-1229.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Watson D: Strangers' ratings of the five robust personality factors: evidence of a surprising convergence with self-report. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1989,57(1):120-128.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Berry DS: Accuracy in social perception: contributions of facial and vocal information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1991,61(2):298-307.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Borkenau P, Mauer N, Riemann R, Spinath FM, Angleitner A: Thin slices of behavior as cues of personality and intelligence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 2004,86(4):599-614.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Borkenau P, Liebler A: Trait inferences: sources of validity at zero acquaintance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1992,62(4):645-657.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Knutson B: Facial expressions of emotion influence interpersonal trait inferences. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 1996,20(3):165-181. 10.1007/BF02281954

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Ekman P: Emotions Revealed. Consulting Psychologists Press, San Francisco, Calif, USA; 1978.

    Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Funge J, Tu X, Terzopoulos D: Cognitive modeling: knowledge, reasoning and planning for intelligent characters. Proceedings of the 26th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (SIGGRAPH '99), August 1999, Los Angeles, Calif, USA 29-38.

    Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Cassell J, Pelachaud C, Badler N, et al.: Animated conversation: rule-based generation of facial expression, gesture and spoken intonation for multiple conversational agents. Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (SIGGRAPH '94), July 1994, New York, NY, USA 413-420.

    Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Cassell J, Vilhjálmsson HH, Bickmore T: BEAT: the behaviour expression animation toolkit. Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (SIGGRAPH '01), August 2001, Los Angeles, Calif, USA 477-486.

    Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    King SA, Knott A, McCane B: Language-driven nonverbal communication in a bilingual conversational agent. Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer Animation and Social Agents (CASA '03), May 2003, New-Brunswick, NJ, USA 17-22.

    Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Smid K, Pandzic I, Radman V: Autonomous speaker agent. Proceedings of Computer Animation and Social Agents Conference (CASA '04), July 2004, Geneva, Switzerland

    Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Russell JA: A circumplex model of affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1980,39(6):1161-1178.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Lee W-S, Escher M, Sannier G, Magnenat-Thalmann N: MPEG-4 compatible faces from orthogonal photos. Proceedings of Computer Animation (CA '99), May 1999, Geneva, Switzerland 186-194.

    Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Noh J-Y, Neumann U: Expression cloning. Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (SIGGRAPH '01), August 2001, Los Angeles, Calif, USA 277-288.

    Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Paradiso A: An algebra of facial expressions. Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (SIGGRAPH '00), July 2000, New Orleans, La, USA

    Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Perlin K: Layered compositing of facial expression. Proceedings of the 24th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (SIGGRAPH '97), August 1997, Los Angeles, Calif, USA

    Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Arya A, Jefferies LN, Enns JT, DiPaola S: Facial actions as visual cues for personality. Computer Animation and Virtual Worlds 2006,17(3-4):371-382. 10.1002/cav.140

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Beedie CJ, Terry PC, Lane AM: Distinctions between emotion and mood. Cognition and Emotion 2005,19(6):847-878. 10.1080/02699930541000057

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    DiPaola S, Arya A: Affective communication remapping in musicface system. Proceedings of the 10th European Conference on Electronic Imaging and the Visual Arts (EVA '04), July 2004, London, UK

    Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Bresin R, Friberg A: Synthesis and decoding of emotionally expressive music performance. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, October 1999, Tokyo, Japan 4: 317-322.

    Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Juslin PN: Cue utilization in communication of emotion in music performance: relating performance to perception. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 2000,26(6):1797-1813.

    Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Liu D, Lu L, Zhang H-J: Automatic mood detection from acoustic music data. Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Music Information Retrieval (ISMIR '03), October 2003, Baltimore, Md, USA

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ali Arya.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Arya, A., DiPaola, S. Multispace Behavioral Model for Face-Based Affective Social Agents. J Image Video Proc 2007, 048757 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1155/2007/48757

Download citation

Keywords

  • Parameter Space
  • Computer Vision
  • Facial Expression
  • Emotional State
  • Facial Feature