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Table 1 Summary of early era literature

From: Spinal vertebrae localization and analysis on disproportionality in curvature using radiography—a comprehensive review

Sr. no. Author Year Pre-processing Technique Diseases Image type Dataset Results Evaluation metrics
1 Flint [13] 1963 Image taken behind mesh of 2 × 2 screen Landmarks with intersection and angle formation Pelvis posture Roentgenographic 31 women patient No correlation of lumbar lordosis and hip-trunk Mean and SD
2 Loebl [14] 1967 Inclinometer for curve measure Arthritis Roentgenographic 176 images 10% within normal ranges Percentage
3 Mehta [12] 1973 Intervals of 15 rotation Transverse process and image matching Scoliosis Radiographs Morphological difference
4 Chwialkowski et al. [16] 1989 Edge enhanced rectangular block with spine size for ROI Candidate fitting vertebral finding disc space then intensity profiling between with cross compared difference Lumbar disc MRI 12–15 images Abnormality in correlation intensity distribution compared with clinical evidence
5 Smyth et al. [17] 1997 Landmarks around contour of T7–T12 and L1–L4 Active shape model (ASM) starts with 3 points till convergence Osteoporosis Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) images 78 women patient 0.20 Precision