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Table 1 Example of the first-order cover probability model 

From: JPEG image steganography payload location based on optimal estimation of cover co-frequency sub-image

ci p(ci) ci −1 ci p(ci| ci −1)
− 3 1/7 − 2 1 1/8
− 2 1/7 − 2 2 7/8
− 1 1/7 − 1 − 1 1/5
0 1/7 − 1 − 2 3/5
1 1/7 − 1 1 1/10
2 1/7 − 1 2 1/10
3 1/7 0 − 1 3/5
   0 − 2 2/5
   1 − 1 7/10
   1 − 2 3/10
   2 − 1 1/5
   2 0 3/5
   2 1 1/5
   3 − 1 2/9
   3 0 1/9
   3 1 2/3