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Table 3 Robustness test results (BER)

From: Coverless information hiding based on the generation of anime characters

Attack   Literature [14] Literature [19] Literature [20] Proposed
Rotational 10° 0.164 1 0.7894 0.0937
30° 0.1116 0.9681 0.8307 0.1190
50° 0.1288 1 0.792 0.1676
Scaling 0.3 0.0086 1 0.8204 0.8992
0.5 0 1 0.7364 0.5892
0.75 0 1 0.5943 0.2354
1.5 0 0.9894 0.3928 0.0582
3 0 1 0.2984 0.0505
Gaussian noise σ(0.001) 0.0301 0.9896 0.8088 0.1548
σ(0.005) 0.0172 1 0.8165 0.4680
σ(0.1) 0.0086 0.9896 0.8662 0.9638
Salt noise σ(0.001) 0 0.8617 0.3359 0.1609
σ(0.005) 0 0.9787 0.5065 0.4904
Speckle noise σ(0.01) 0.0086 1 0.6951 0.0972
σ(0.05) 0.0086 1 0.8798 0.2341
σ(0.1) 0.0258 1 0.9367 0.9107
Median filter (3 × 3) 0 1 0.6822 0.1813
(5 × 5) 0.0086 1 0.6951 0.3486
(7 × 7) 0.0172 1 0.8088 0.4699
Mean filter (3 × 3) 0 1 0.739 0.2424
(5 × 5) 0 1 0.8488 0.1861
(7 × 7) 0 1 0.876 0.7024
Gaussian filter (3 × 3) 0 1 0.686 0.1743
(5 × 5) 0 1 0.7558 0.3051
(7 × 7) 0 1 0.9031 0.4984