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Table 2 Comparison of experimental and theoretical value of MGR and EE

From: An efficient histogram-preserving steganography based on block

l MGR actual \( \mathrm{MGR}\left(\ \frac{C_{2m}^m}{2^{2m}}\right) \) theoretical \( \mathrm{MGR}\left(\frac{1}{\ \sqrt{\pi m}}\right) \) approximate EE actual EE theoretical
2 0.5001 0.5000 0.5642 2.0162 2.0000
3 0.5000 0.5000 0.5642 2.4000 2.4000
4 0.3751 0.3750 0.3989 2.2931 2.2857
5 0.3751 0.3750 0.3989 2.4239 2.4242
6 0.3127 0.3125 0.3257 2.3462 2.3415
7 0.3126 0.3125 0.3257 2.4088 2.4086
8 0.2735 0.2734 0.2821 2.3515 2.3486
9 0.2735 0.2734 0.2821 2.3877 2.3876
10 0.2461 0.2461 0.2523 2.3444 2.3422
11 0.2462 0.2461 0.2523 2.3677 2.3674
12 0.2258 0.2256 0.2303 2.3334 2.3317
13 0.2257 0.2256 0.2303 2.3496 2.3492
14 0.2094 0.2095 0.2132 2.3213 2.3203
15 0.2096 0.2095 0.2132 2.3335 2.3332