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Table 7 Comparison with state-of-the-art

From: Predicting the Sixteen Personality Factors (16PF) of an individual by analyzing facial features

Work Year Method used Facial features used Personality type assessed Highest prediction accuracy
Setyadi et al. [4] 2015 ANNs Distance between two corners of the eyes, high of eyes, ratio of the mouth width and nose, the width ratio of two eyes, and thickness of lower lip four temperaments 65–68% (for sanguine and melancholic temperaments)
Teijeiro-Mosquera et al. [20] 2015 CERT CERT—four sets of behavioral cues FFM 60–65% (for extraversion)
Gavrilescu [21] 2015 FFNN FACS—27 AUs FFM 75% (for neuroticism, openness to experience, and extraversion)
Chin et al. [22] 2013 EM Marker-based tracking MBTI 60%
Zhang et al. [23] 2017 CNNs CNN features 16PF > 80% for rule consciousness and tension
Current work 2017 FFNNs FACS—27 AUs 16PF 67% (random datasets for training and testing) 70–72% (emotion induced datasets for training and random datasets for testing) > 80% for warmth, emotional stability, liveliness, social boldness, sensitivity, vigilance, and tension