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Table 6 Overall comparison between the related schemes and the proposed scheme

From: High payload secret hiding technology for QR codes

Methods References [12, 13] References [14, 15] [16] Proposed
Applications Image hiding Image hiding Secret hiding Secret hiding
Embedding domain Frequency Spatial Spatial Spatial
Computational complexity High Low Low Low
Operation upon QR code No No Yes Yes
Module-based No No Yes Yes
Utilizing the error correction capability No No Yes Yes
Secret payload tc bits Larger than tc bits